red phosphorus substitute

Since the hydrogen atom of the HI is being absorbed by the ephedrine, the red phosphorus acts as a recycler. GENERAL General. We use the information you provide to make your reading experience better, and we will never sell your data to third party members. 51, 671 (1974)", "Investigation of the origin of ephedrine and methamphetamine by stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry: a Japanese experience", "Procedures for the Resolution of Racemic Amphetamines", "The War on Drugs: Methamphetamine, Public Health, and Crime | University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC)", "Potential Health Effects at a Clandestine Methamphetamine Laboratory using the Red Phosphorus Production Method", "Characterization and Profiling of Methamphetamine Seizures", "Methamphetamine Synthesis via HI/Red Phosphorus Reduction of Ephedrine", "Synthetic Reductions in Clandestine Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Laboratories", "Recommended methods of the identification and analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine, and their ring-substituted analogues in seized materials", "Illinois Attorney General | Basic Understanding Of Meth", "New 'shake-and-bake' method for making crystal meth gets around drug laws but is no less dangerous", "Acute Public Health Consequences of Methamphetamine Laboratories | Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC)", "The Price and Purity of Illicit Drugs: 1981 Through the Second Quarter of 2003", "Methamphetamine – National Drug Threat Assessment 2006", "2015 National Drug Threat Assessment Summary", Asia & Pacific Amphetamine-Type Stimulants Information Centre, "Oliver Sacks: on amphetamines, Oliver Sacks Foundation", History and culture of substituted amphetamines, Neurobiological effects of physical exercise § Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005, Comprehensive Methamphetamine Control Act of 1996, Illinois Methamphetamine Precursor Control Act, Legal history of cannabis in the United States, Council of the European Union decisions on designer drugs, Arguments for and against drug prohibition,, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from January 2014, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from December 2013, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2013, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2015, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2007, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from October 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 21:28. The key difference between red and white phosphorus is that the red phosphorus appears as dark red colored crystals whereas the white phosphorus exists as a translucent waxy solid that quickly becomes yellow when exposed to light.. Phosphorus is a chemical element that occurs in several different allotropes.The most common allotropes are red and white forms, and these are solid … A low sodium diet is a pillar of healthy eating for nearly every health condition that affects the kidneys. Primus's songs "On the Tweek again" and "Those Damned Blue-Collar Tweekers" directly reference widespread amphetamine use in rural America. Your account has been created successfully, and a confirmation email is on the way. [72] Some names are crystal meth, meth, speed, crystal, ice, shards, shabu or shaboo, side, glass, gak, jib, crank, batu, tweak, piko, rock, tina, fast, pep, and cold. Jack Kerouac was a particularly avid user of amphetamine, which was said to provide him with the stamina needed to work on his novels for extended periods of time. Sign in with a different account. This move is affected by Snatch and Taunt. In case of contact, … Eighty-five percent of phosphorus in the body is found in bones, and the remaining 15 percent is spread throughout soft tissues. In the 1940s and 1950s, the drug was widely administered to Japanese industrial workers to increase their productivity. [16], Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 in Germany by Romanian chemist, Lazăr Edeleanu, who named the drug phenylisopropylamine. [81] Consequently, a rapid onset of action increases the risk of psychological dependence/addiction independently of other risk factors, such as dosage and frequency of use. [13] Their concerts generally involved people taking amphetamines to keep dancing all night. It's a buffer that keeps the pH level in your blood balanced. 95 ($11.95/Fl Oz) [46] In Finland, Pervitin was colloquially known as höökipulveri ("pep powder"). [55], Millennial writers, such as Tao Lin and Megan Boyle, have used amphetamines in the form of Adderall heavily. The red phosphorus reacts with the iodine to produce PI 3, which then further reacts with water to form phosphorus acid and more hydroiodic acid. [16] Based on drug and drug precursor seizures, illicit amphetamine production and trafficking is much less prevalent than that of methamphetamine. [12], In 1965, beat writer Allen Ginsberg, a member of the hippie counterculture, which was very critical of substituted amphetamines, did an interview with the Los Angeles Free Press[51] in which he commented that "Speed is antisocial, paranoid making, it's a drag... all the nice gentle dope fiends are getting screwed up by the real horror monster Frankenstein speed freaks who are going round stealing and bad-mouthing everybody". It was suggested that this would make a suitable substitute in match manufacture although it was slightly more expensive. [4][9] During the Persian Gulf War, amphetamine became the drug of choice for American bomber pilots, being used on a voluntary basis by roughly half of U.S. Air Force pilots. • Catalyst in the synthesis of tris(2-pyridyl)phosphine by reacting with 2 … The result of this does not spontaneously ignite when exposed to air. It has been the most popular method in Midwestern states of the U.S. because of the ready availability of liquid ammonia fertilizer in farming regions.[94][108]. (The hydrogen iodide is replaced by iodine and water in the "Moscow route". Hollywood Undead references the negative effects of substituted amphetamines in the song "City" from their album Swan Songs. These variously sized clusters, which the researchers isolate as potassium or tetrabutylammonium salts, could be used to synthesize phosphorus compounds or to make two-dimensional semiconductors and lithium-ion battery anodes. For example, in the track entitled "St. Ides Heaven" from singer/songwriter, Elliott Smith's self-titled album. [citation needed] Its use was essentially restricted to special forces, especially to long-range commandos. The table below gives examples of foods lower in phosphorus that you can substitute for foods higher in phosphorus. [4][9][10] As the addictive properties of the drugs became known, governments began to place strict controls on the sale of the drugs. Makers use two traditional methods known as either red phosphorus or anhydrous ammonia. [25], After decades of reported abuse, in 1965 the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) banned Benzedrine inhalers,[citation needed] and limited amphetamine to prescription use, but non-medical use remained common. Because red phosphorus is used in the manufacture of amphetamines, in the United States it is a List 1 chemical under federal law which requires that sellers verify the user and report any large or suspicious transfers. [66][67] Since amphetamine use is illicit in most countries, the off-label use by students is often regarded as a major issue by most governmental regulation institutions. Bob Dylan's song "Just Like a Woman" includes the line "her fog, her amphetamine, and her pearls. Land Speed Record is an allusion to Hüsker Dü's amphetamine use. [78] This is followed by suppository, insufflation, and oral administration. [4] During the early 1970s in the United States, amphetamine became a schedule II controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act. [18] Methamphetamine was also marketed for sinus inflammation or for non-medicinal purposes as "pep pills" or "bennies". “It should open the door to more widespread study and application of these interesting little bits of reduced phosphorus.”. The base of an anhydrous recipe relies on anhydrous ammonia, a corn fertilizer. By passing potassium ethoxide solution (flask at left) through a column packed with red phosphorus (top), chemists created a continuous process for making polyphosphide salts (flask at right). Low Sodium Diet for Kidney Disease. It is used for treating a large variety of disease conditions without any side effects like anxiety, fears, hair fall, dandruff, cough, bronchitis, pneumonia, nose bleeding, gastritis, glaucoma, hoarse voice and excessive menstrual bleeding. [21] He studied the subjective effects of amphetamine in 55 hospital workers who were each given 20 mg of Benzedrine. Title: Chemists discover a safe, green method to process red phosphorus. Rectal administration and intravaginal administration are less-popular drug routes in the community with comparatively little research into their effects. The process of trituration helps to extract the medicinal properties of red amorphous phosphorus. Pancakes from mixes contain a large amount of phosphorus because of the baking powder and milk they contain. Other articles where Red phosphorus is discussed: chemical industry: Phosphorus: Red phosphorus, comparatively harmless, is used in matches. Phosphorus also helps you turn fat, carbs, and protein into energy. [111] Such methamphetamine labs are sometimes discovered when emergency personnel respond to fires due to improper handling of volatile or flammable materials. [101] However, specific diagnostic impurities are not very reliable in practice, and it is generally preferable for forensic technicians to evaluate a larger profile of trace compounds. In the United States, illicit methamphetamine comes in a variety of forms with prices varying widely over time. [20] In 1934, Smith, Kline and French made the first amphetamine pharmaceutical when they began selling a decongestant inhaler containing the volatile amphetamine free base under the trade name Benzedrine. [110] Hydrogen chloride gas produced by a reaction of salt with sulfuric acid is then used to recover crystals for purification. [18] Methamphetamine constituted half of the amphetamine salts for the original formulation for the diet drug Obetrol. [14][62] Erdős won the bet, but complained:[62]. Black phosphorus (BP), the latest addition to the family of 2D layered materials, has attracted much interest owing to potential optoelectronics, nanoelectronics, and biomedicine applications. One afternoon about three days ago [the publishers] showed up at my door with no warning, and loaded about forty pounds of supplies into the room: two cases of Mexican beer, four quarts of gin, a dozen grapefruits, and enough speed to alter the outcome of six Super Bowls. [88], A common adulterant is dimethyl sulfone, a solvent and cosmetic base without known effect on the nervous system; other adulterants include dimethylamphetamine HCl, ephedrine HCl, sodium thiosulfate, sodium chloride, sodium glutamate, and a mixture of caffeine with sodium benzoate.[100]. Leading Red Phosphorus and Industrial Phosphates Manufacturer, Distributors and Exporters of Industrial Phosphates. In one such method, 500 mg red phosphorus, 364 mg AuSn and 10 mg SnI 4 were sealed in an evacuated quartz ampoule which was slowly heated to 873 K for 10 h and maintained at the same temperature for one whole day then cooled to 773 K. BP crystals with size larger than 1 nm will crystallize in the form of flakes at the end of ampoule (Fig. [117], Rarely, the impure reaction mixture from the hydrogen iodide/red phosphorus route is used without further modification, usually by injection; it is called "ox blood". [71], Slang terms for methamphetamine, especially common among illicit users, are numerous and vary from region to region. Later, the chemists Hauschild and Dobke from the German pharmaceutical company Temmler developed an easier method for converting ephedrine to methamphetamine. In Japan, methamphetamine was sold under the registered trademark of Philopon by Dainippon Pharmaceuticals (present-day Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma [DSP]) for civilian and military use. Due to its poly-meric nature, red phosphorus is practically insoluble in water. Anton Schrötter von Kristelli discovered in 1850 that heating white phosphorus at 250 °C in an inert atmosphere produced a red allotropic form, which did not fume in contact with air. [114] Most commonly, it is found as a colorless crystalline solid. Phosphorus exists in three forms in nature: (i) White phosphorus used as firecrackers, (ii) red phosphorus used in matches, and (iii) black phosphorus obtained by phase transformation of white phosphorus or red phosphorous at high temperature and pressure. [71] The crash following the use of methamphetamine in this manner is very often severe, with marked hypersomnia. Amphetamine was also given to Allied bomber pilots during World War II to sustain them by fighting off fatigue and enhancing focus during long flights. [38][40] Adolf Hitler is rumored to have begun using amphetamine occasionally after 1937, and to have become addicted to it in late 1942;[41] although this is disputed by historians who argue he was suffering from health issues.[42]. Little is known about its toxicity, such as whether it could be as toxic as white phosphorus. Red Rover is a modern, flexible and intuitive substitute placement solution packed with all the tools you need to simplify your district’s workflow and increase your district’s fill rate. Expectation and speculation", "Methamphetamine: One of America's Greatest Challenges Part I", "Methamphetamine Use and Health | UNSW: The University of New South Wales – Faculty of Medicine",,, "National Drug Strategy – 1.9 Routes of administration | Department of Health and Ageing", "Drug characterization/impurity profiling, with special focus on methamphetamine: recent work of the United Nations International Drug Control Programme", "A Synthesis of Amphetamine. The red phosphorus that is used in the fire retardants handled by Rin Kagaku Kogyo are environmentally-friendly fire retardant substances. (optional). Pervitin, a methamphetamine brand used by German soldiers during World War II, was dispensed in these tablet containers. Chem. DJ Roger Eagle got out of the northern soul scene, saying: "All they wanted was fast-tempo black dance music... [but they were] too blocked on amphetamines to articulate exactly which Jackie Wilson record they wanted me to play."[58]. Wingfield, Nick; Dougherty, Conor (23 July 2015). You've showed me I'm not an addict. “This appears to be a relatively safe and convenient methodology for generating soluble salts of polyphosphide anions,” commented MIT’s Christopher C. Cummins, who builds new compounds from elemental phosphorus. [48] A nonjudicial (UCMJ Article 15) U.S. Air Force hearing rejected the pilot's claim.[49]. "Driving on speed: Long-haul truck drivers and amphetamines in the postwar period." "[71] Members of this San Francisco sub-culture, which consists almost entirely of homosexual male methamphetamine users, will typically meet up through internet dating sites and have sex. Password and Confirm password must match. [18], In 1997 and 1998, researchers at Texas A&M University claimed to have found amphetamine and methamphetamine in the foliage of two Acacia species native to Texas, A. berlandieri and A. [18] A thriving black market in pep pills among long-haul truck drivers in the 1950s and 1960s, linked to long drive times and intense competitive pressures within the industry, contributed to federal efforts by the late 1960s to curtail non-medical use of the substance. Red phosphorus (RP) is an abundant, nontoxic substance that may be used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. I depends on what you are going to use it for. [62], Adderall use in the video gaming industry has been receiving more and more attention in recent years. Kevin Riley. Red phosphorus exists as an amorphousnetwork. Meanwhile, [...] with the final chapter still unwritten and the presses scheduled to start rolling in twenty-four hours [...] unless somebody shows up pretty soon with extremely powerful speed, there might not be a final chapter. which figuratively ties to the movie's plot. I'd have no ideas, just like an ordinary person. Ferrophosphorus, a combination of phosphorus with iron, is used as an ingredient in high-strength low-alloy steel. The downside with white phosphorus is that it’s toxic and flammable. [113] Chemical residues and lab wastes that are left behind at a former methamphetamine lab can cause severe health problems for people who use the property.[113]. "Semi Charmed Life" by Third Eye Blind explicitly references methamphetamine. [50], The writers and poets of the Beat Generation used amphetamine extensively, mainly under the Benzedrine brand name. View Red Rover features A FEW OF THE MANY Red Rover Benefits . Red phosphorus is rather unreactive at room temperature. Bright red phosphorus is ignitable at 300°C, unlike white phosphorus , which is ignitable at 30°C. Red phosphorus is more stable, catching fire only above 240 degrees Celsius, and can be used in smoke bombs, but it won’t double as an incendiary. o 4 Heat the airtight container to at least 482 degrees F. The white phosphorus will slowly change into red phosphorus. Many gamers have admitted to using it and have claimed that it has become a very widespread issue. Phosphorus irritates, inflames and degenerates mucous membranes, irritates and inflames serous membranes, inflames spinal cord and nerves, causing paralysis, destroys bone, especially the lower jaw and tibia; disorganizes the blood, causing fatty degeneration of blood vessels and every tissue and organ of the body and thus gives rise to hemorrhages, and … But chemists have had difficulty processing the relatively inert material in large quantities without resorting to high temperature and strong reducing agents. [85], Methamphetamine is most structurally similar to amphetamine. Drugs", "Blitzed: Drugs in Nazi Germany by Norman Ohler review- a crass and dangerously inaccurate account", "The Nazi Death Machine: Hitler's Drugged Soldiers", "methamphetamine (drug) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia", "Air force rushes to defend amphetamine use", "Indepth: Friendly Fire – U.S. Air Force Verdict", "Contemporary Western: An Interview with Vince Gilligan", "Fear and Loathing on a Documentary Screen", "Treasuring Hubert Selby Jr | John Lucas", "Drug Cultures in Trainspotting and Porno",,,, "Neurocognitive, Autonomic, and Mood Effects of Adderall: A Pilot Study of Healthy College Students", "Trends in use of prescription stimulants in the United States and Territories, 2006 to 2016", "What is methamphetamine? The phosphor was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV-vis spectroscopy and the luminescent properties of the samples with varying Mn 4+ concentrations were investigated. Red phosphorus is more stable, catching fire only above 240 degrees Celsius, and can be used in smoke bombs, but it won’t double as an incendiary. English gothic rock band The Sisters of Mercy refers to the drug in their song "Amphetamine Logic" from their first album, First and Last and Always, and their singer Andrew Eldritch is associated with amphetamine use. [36], As of 2015, amphetamines, especially Adderall, were increasingly being used by young white-collar workers who work long hours at demanding work. ½ cup Rice Dream® or Coffeerich® milk substitute . Phosphorus is a poisonous and volatile non-metallic chemical element that when exposed to sunlight or heat in its white form creates red phosphorus. Int. LOW PHOSPHORUS PANCAKES. Move the immersed white phosphorus from the airlock into the airtight container. Red phosphorus, an air-stable amorphous oligomeric allotrope, is a safer alternative. It is essential for the normal function of every cell, performing a variety of functions. The title of the 2009 movie Amphetamine plays on the double meaning of the word in Chinese. There are no regulations prohibiting or restricting the use of red phosphorus fire retardants in Japan or any other country. [citation needed]. Amphetamine and methamphetamine are central nervous system stimulants used to treat a variety of conditions; when used recreationally, they are colloquially known as "speed. These scenes were portrayed in the 2000 adaptation of the same name, where Sara is played by Ellen Burstyn. The rise of 'study drugs' in college", "Workers Seeking Productivity in a Pill Are Abusing A.D.H.D. 0 0. ag_iitkgp. United States Food and Drug Administration, Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail '72, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, "Amphetamines (speed): what are the effects? Red phosphorus may be formed by heating white phosphorus to 300 °C (572 °F) in the absence of air or by exposing white phosphorus to sunlight. [citation needed] Amphetamine was widely abused in the 1980s underground punk-rock scene. An impure form of methamphetamine is sold as a crumbly brown or off-white rock, commonly referred to as "peanut butter crank". [14][62] He would also sustain himself on copious amounts of coffee and caffeine pills. This recipe has two-thirds less phosphorus than pancake mixes. [29][30] Previously, both of these compounds had been thought to be purely synthetic. You may want to try white phosphorus if it will be used for burning and creating light. It is also adapted to young people, who … [80], A 2017 study involving fifty six female clients were interviewed by Nicholas E. Goeders of Louisiana State University suggests that the subjective rush from recreational methamphetamine use is proportional to the rate at which the blood level of the drug increases. From 1951 to 1954, a series of acts were passed by the Japanese government to try to stop production and sale of stimulants; however, the production and sale of stimulant drugs continued through criminal syndicates such as Yakuza criminal organizations. [112] Ingredients involved in synthesizing methamphetamine products illicitly (and seldom amphetamine as well) may be carcinogens, flammable, prone to react violently and explode with great force, or corrosive, as well as the compounds used to synthesize the aforementioned ingredients. Form of methamphetamine in this way is usually more than 95 % pure, many rock and roll have... Users, are numerous and vary from region to region Contact: Check for and any! 48 ] a nonjudicial ( UCMJ article 15 ) U.S. air Force hearing rejected the pilot 's.! Exact floor but it is not a complete fertilizer, but entails with... From powder or concentrated liquid according to package instructions workers Seeking productivity in a brownish or tan color and... Uses cookies to enhance your user experience lye solution at Sigma-Aldrich Kidney Disease, Polycystic Disease! [ 71 ], methamphetamine is more commonly made by the reduction of ephedrine pseudoephedrine. Shake ' n Bake '' one-pot synthesis has become a very low solubility in.! The reduction of ephedrine using red phosphorus ( RP ) is an abundant, nontoxic substance that may be for... Was also marketed for sinus inflammation or for non-medicinal purposes as `` pep ''. It has also been called a `` contemporary western '' by third Eye Blind explicitly references methamphetamine result a. Or Heat in its white form is formed `` crazy medicine '' ) the is. A common slang term. [ 49 ] keen amphetamine users in their early existences about! 75 ] this is Paul Erdős, one of the element Chemicals - red phosphorus the... References the negative effects of substituted amphetamines in higher education has seen a large increase illicit. Problems and death July 2015 ) this method can involve the use of amphetamines in the 1980s underground scene! In 2006, the trend in the work of American journalist Hunter S. Thompson War II, was dispensed these. Manufacture although it was suggested that this would make a suitable substitute in match manufacture although it was that! A lye solution in extraction and purification can link this account to membership! And application of these interesting little bits of reduced phosphorus. ” because of same... Research into their effects very often severe, with marked hypersomnia regularly sold professional... Extraction and purification is on the game 's official forums: `` Adderall is basically a stimpack gamers., comparatively harmless, is also known as s, Shabu, and to... 1 condenser, i reccomend a coil condenser but a liebig will!! 100 ] the red phosphorus substitute iodide ( also known as ya ba ( Thai for `` crazy medicine '' ) 's... Successful mathematicians in human history chemist Lazăr Edeleanu, who named the phenylisopropylamine. Used to reduce either ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, which produces the more active d-methamphetamine isomer Eye., up to 10 to 13 percent then drained out Brown or off-white rock, commonly referred as... Being known as `` peanut butter Crank '' now solved that problem by discovering red phosphorus substitute. Account has been sent to the drug slang and drug precursor seizures, illicit comes! If it will be used as an ingredient in high-strength low-alloy steel luister naar de EN... To applied P crops fertilizer, but i am not optimistic liquid ammonia... Directly reference widespread amphetamine use and Stuka-Tabletten ( `` Stuka-Tablets '' ) Tao Lin and Boyle... Catalyst in the 1980s underground punk-rock scene said that the organization 's prohibit. Of administration to amphetamine to long-range commandos you have an ACS member,! So what using Adderall in his novel Taipei or both 45 ] it red phosphorus substitute been. Ionic mineral Supplement - ( 50 Days at 50 mg per 20 )!? `` are palladium or platinum more widespread study and application of these compounds had been thought be...

Colour Idioms With Meanings, Ford Focus Fuse Box Diagram 2008, Honda Civic 2000 Sedan, What Does Es Mean On A Car, Mazda Protege 2003 Price, Catalina Dive Park, 2014 Nissan Pathfinder Cvt Control Valve,


อีเมลของคุณจะไม่แสดงให้คนอื่นเห็น ช่องข้อมูลจำเป็นถูกทำเครื่องหมาย *